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In many ways, the question of whether leaders are born or made is interesting. Leaders are born with a passion for doing good and making a difference in the lives of others. These leaders learn from their experiences and can then empower themselves through education. These leaders are selfless, dedicated, and persuasive in all they do. Their leaders attract followers who are driven to achieve their goals and dreams through their leadership. Leaders often have inherited characteristics like trustworthiness and oratory skills. They also tend to be composed. Some people, like princes, are predisposed to leadership traits due to their genetics. Although genetics can influence intelligence, most people find that it has a smaller impact on leadership traits. Many theories explain leadership qualities, but none of them can prove whether they are inherent traits or acquired through life experience. Leadership traits can be learned in two ways: through environmental and genetic factors and through life experience.
States or kingdoms that have been in power for more than a few years are considered principalities or republics. Machiavelli states that thrones can be either hereditary or established through dynasties over generations. Notably, territories that are entirely new or annexed by hereditary kingdoms ruled over them are not inherited from the prince who conquered them. Princes often acquire these principalities through luck or strength. The prince and his subjects then become accustomed to the new freedoms under his leadership.
Machiavelli proposes two excellent views of the principality. These are how to acquire and keep power. Machiavelli 9 states that you can either gain authority through luck or strength. This means one cannot control the ruling power by overthrowing it or inheriting its throne. Machiavelli’s Renaissance era illustrates how moral or ethical issues were irrelevant when fighting for dominance. Machiavelli believes that to be in power, one must kill if there is a coup. Machiavelli states that a new prince must make sure there are no living heirs to the previous ruler (Machiavelli 9, Machiavelli 9). The new prince must not create new laws or alter existing ones. Machiavelli encourages the new prince not to introduce new laws or alter existing laws. This was the only way that new rulers could establish hereditary domains.
Rulers’ actions have an impact on their subjects. To ensure that the princes are in power, citizens must show loyalty to their leaders. It is crucial that the subject shows loyalty to the rulers in order to preserve control and encourage citizens to join the military to fight for their country. This raises questions about Machiavelli’s view of citizens. He claimed that their primary function was to protect the country and preserve its power. Machiavelli did not anticipate the moral and ethical issues that his ideologies would create. These issues became the core of Machiavelli’s philosophy. Machiavelli provided advice in a volatile political and social society. However, many people used Machiavelli’s concepts of rulership as a justification for their evil actions. These people believe that the ultimate goal of any mission is to win.
Machiavelli also described the qualities that a prince must possess to lead a kingdom. Machiavelli noted that a prince must learn from nature in order to be able to lead well. Machiavelli said that a prince should have the courage of a lion, and the wisdom of the fox in order to keep his power (Machiavelli 55). This means that a prince must be smarter or more cunning than his subjects and enemies. The people will offer protection to him and never overthrow him or kill him. They also fear his power and might. This argument was the foundation for the idea that people should fear their princes more than they love them. Machiavelli says that subjects should love and fear their prince.
Princes must be able to love and fear simultaneously. Machiavelli advocated love and fear, since rulers require loyalty and obedience from their subjects. He also believed that rulers should be fearful because they are responsible for running the country. He cautioned leaders not to be hated by citizens. Machiavelli was a supporter of military action to gain power and protect the kingdom. He was opposed to oppression and believed that sufficient military power contributed to the establishment of reasonable laws and their enforcement. Machiavelli supported the idea, noting that “the presence of a solid military force indicates that there are sound laws” (Machiavelli 65). The advice given to the prince regarding the loyalty of the people is correct since it is a better defense than structured fortresses. A leader must maintain positive publicity and the support of the people in order to achieve their goal. The unification of different states is the central goal of a prince.
A leader must have the confidence to be effective. This includes both personal and general self-confidence. A person’s early childhood experiences can make a strong impression on their self-esteem. However, definite confidence is a change in an individual’s emotional or mental state as a result of certain tasks or situations (Axelrod 299). Both these qualities are developed through unconscious internal dialogues, where the individual makes judgments about themselves based upon their experiences and feedback from others (Bligh 28). Both specific and general self-confidence affects behavior, thoughts, emotions, and moods. However, having significant self-esteem in strange and new situations is important.
Rousseau, a leader, instituted reforms that revolutionized the taste of music and arts. He also significantly influenced people’s lives. Rousseau’s views on leadership were scathing. He condemned the excesses of aristocratic leaders while the masses starved from a lack of basic needs. Rousseau explored the notion of the leadership dyad. Cawthon 69 stated that leaders must always refer to God as their primary source for wisdom and inspiration in order to manage the masses. The general will and the will of the masses should not be confused. They are distinct because the will of all is a combination of several wills. The will of all is characterized by selfishness and greed.
Machiavelli also spoke out about his view of moral character. Machiavelli argued that a ruler’s power is more important than his virtues. He quickly acknowledged that vices can ruin a leader’s reputation, but Machiavelli said that a prince should not worry about less serious vices. To put it another way, a prince should not have a bad reputation for engaging in unneeded vices to keep him in power (Jacobus 9). Machiavelli also highlighted virtues that could lead to a prince’s demise. To put it another way, a prince should avoid the worst vices in order to protect his reputation (Jacobus 9, 9). Machiavelli argued that vices were essential for maintaining power since certain virtues lead to destruction.
Lao-Tzu’s vision of a leader was different from Machiavelli’s. Lao-Tzu argued that leaders should encourage their teams to take ownership of their work and not create doubts or distrust in their ability to complete their tasks. Lao-Tzu says that his followers will always be congratulated by a successful leader (Jacobus 10, 10). This means that a leader must instill confidence in his workers and make them feel like they are part of the project team, company, and company. This creates a sense of satisfaction among the workers about their work. Lao-Tzu also argued that leaders should not be too strong but should lead their followers gently. The essence of the distinction between leadership and controlling a group is that everyone benefits from the latter.
Leadership involves collaboration, taking into consideration the opinions and experiences of all members of the team rather than making unilateral decisions. Workers will enjoy their jobs if they are surrounded by understanding and compassionate leaders (Bligh 23). Lao-Tzu believed that leaders should set an example for their followers. Corrupt leaders resort to force and intrigue, while calm and content leaders set positive examples for their followers. To set the right tone for their team members, a leader must be able to communicate that message (Bligh 25). It is easier for others to be calm when a leader is collected. An angry leader can infuse negativity in his team members.
Researchers and scholars continue to debate whether leadership skills are learned or innate qualities. Scholars have sound arguments in support of either side. Although there are many evidences to support each side, there is not a clear argument. Training and genetics are key factors in determining whether a leader is able to do the job. Like how people have different natural talents in art or athletics, some people are gifted with intelligence, intuition and self-confidence. These individuals can also be great leaders. Extroverts who have a significant impact on others can be leaders. But, people can still work and develop leadership skills despite not having the right personality traits. People’s leadership potential is affected by their environment. This includes family, education, friends, religion, and social culture. No matter what one’s innate abilities, natural leaders can be developed.